Tuesday, 5 January 2021

INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND CONTROL

Five moments of hand hygiene include all of the following except:

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Before patient contact

Before a clean/aseptic procedure

Before body fluid exposure risk

 

After patient contact

After contact with patient surroundings

 

If you were told by a nurse at handover to take ‘standard precautions’, what would you expect to be doing?

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·       Taking precautions when handling blood and ‘high risk’ body fluids so as not to pass on any infection to the patient

·       Wearing gloves, an apron and a mask when caring for someone in protective isolation

·       Asking relatives to wash their hands when visiting patients in the clinical setting

·       Using appropriate hand hygiene, wearing gloves and an apron when necessary, disposing of used sharp instruments safely, and providing care in a suitably clean environment to protect yourself and the patients

 

 

All individuals providing nursing care must be competent at which of the following procedures?

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·       Hand hygiene and aseptic technique

·       Aseptic technique only

·       Hand hygiene, use of protective equipment, and disposal of waste

 

·       Disposal of waste and use of protective equipment

·       All of the above

 

A healthcare assistant was assigned to perform direct patient care to an immunocompromised patient and you noted that the assistant encountered difficulties in performing the correct technique in doing hand washing. As a registered nurse, what should you do to address this concern?

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·       Do not intervene but report this to the manager and arrange for training of all healthcare assistants

·       Immediately, but politely tell the assistant of your concern and teach them the proper way of doing hand washing

·       Tell the assistant off for not meeting the expectations as far as hand washing

·       Intervene by raising concern immediately to the line manager about the concern and the possible risk to patient safety so something can be done to address the lack of competence

 

 

 

Correct answer

Immediately, but politely tell the assistant of your concern and teach them the proper way of doing hand washing

 

What must the nurse do before commencing direct patient care?

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Check consent form

Perform hand washing using 6-step technique

 

Pull the curtains shut

All of the above

 

Define standard precaution:

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·       The precautions that are taken with all blood and ‘high-risk’ body fluids

 

·       The actions that should be taken in every care situation to protect patients and others from infection, regardless of what is known of the patient’s status with respect to infection

·       It is meant to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodbourne and other pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources

·       The practice of avoiding contact with bodily fluids, by means of wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields

 

 

 

Correct answer

The actions that should be taken in every care situation to protect patients and others from infection, regardless of what is known of the patient’s status with respect to infection

 

The use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination of hands before and after direct patient contact and clinical care is recommended when:

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·       Hands are visibly soiled

 

·       Caring for patients with vomiting or diarrhoeal illness, regardless of whether or not gloves have been worn

·       Immediately after contact with body fluids, mucous membranes and non-intact skin

 

Correct answer

Immediately after contact with body fluids, mucous membranes and non-intact skin

 

Respiratory protective equipment include:

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Gloves

Mask

Apron

 

Paper towels

 

Correct answer

Mask

 

According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidelines, examples of the Personal Protective Equipment are:

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Tunic top, vascular access devices, surgical scissors

 

Gloves, aprons, face mask and goggles

Gloves, cannula, aprons and syringes

All of the above

None of the above

 

Correct answer

Gloves, aprons, face mask and goggles

 

Which of the following is the most important in infection control and prevention?

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Wearing gloves and apron at all times

Hand washing

 

Immediate prescription of antibiotics

Use of hand rubs in the bedside

 

Contact precautions are initiated for a client with a health care associated infection caused by MRSA. Which protective equipments the nurse should wear while providing colostomy care?

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Gloves and gown

Gloves and goggles

 

Gloves, gowm and shoe protecters

Gloves, gown, goggles and face shield

 

Correct answer

Gloves, gown, goggles and face shield

 

The charge nurse observes a new staff nurse who is changing a dressing on a surgical wound. After carefully washing her hands the nurse dons sterile gloves to remove the old dressing. After removing the dirty dressing, the nurse removes the gloves and dons a new pair of sterile gloves in preparation for cleaning and redressing the wound. The most appropriate action for the charge nurse is to:

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·       Interrupt the procedure to inform the staff nurse that sterile gloves are not needed to remove the old dressing

 

·       Congratulate the nurse on the use of good technique

·       Discuss dressing change technique with the nurse at a later date

·       Interrupt the procedure to inform the nurse of the need to wash her hands after removal of the dirty dressing and gloves

 

Correct answer

Interrupt the procedure to inform the nurse of the need to wash her hands after removal of the dirty dressing and gloves

 

The objective of standard precautions is to prevent the spread of infection within the health care institution:

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From patient to patient

From patient to staff

 

From staff to patient

From staff to staff

All of the above

 

Correct answer

All of the above

 

The most important procedure for the prevention of infection from germs and viruses is:

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Wearing gloves

Properly bagging used linen

 

Effective hand washing

Wearing protective eyewear

 

Correct answer

Effective hand washing

 

Except which procedure must all individuals providing nursing care must be competent at?

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Hand hygiene

Use of protective equipment

Disposal of waste

 

Aseptic technique

 

Correct answer

Aseptic technique

 

Before giving direct care to the patient, you should:

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Wear mask, aprons

Wash hands with alcohol rub

Hand washing using 6 steps

 

Take all standard precautions

 

When do you wear clean gloves?

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Assisting with bathing

 

Feeding a client

When there is broken skin on hand

Any activity which includes physical touch of a client

 

Correct answer

When there is broken skin on hand

 

A patient is admitted to the ward with symptoms of acute diarrhoea. What should your initial management be?

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Assessment, protective isolation, universal precautions

Assessment, source isolation, antibiotic therapy

Assessment, protective isolation, antimotility medication

Assessment, source isolation, universal precautions

 

 

What may not be cause of diarrheoa?

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Colitis

Intestinal obstruction

Food allergy

 

Food poisoning

 

Correct answer

Intestinal obstruction

 

A patient’s daughter wants to visit her mom in the hospital, she has been experiencing diarrhoea, what will you advise her?

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Advise to visit when she feels better

Advise her that she can visit when she is 48 hours symptom free

 

She can visit when she is fully recovered

None of the above

 

A patient had been suffering from severe diarrheoa and is now showing signs of dehydration. Which of the following is not a classic symptom?

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Passing small amounts of urine frequently

Dizziness or lightheadedness

 

Dark-coloured urine

Thirst

 

Correct answer

Passing small amounts of urine frequently

 

A relative of the patient was experiencing vomiting and diarrhoea and wished to visit her mother who was admitted. As a nurse, what will you advise to the patient's relative?

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There should be 48 hours after active symptoms should disappear prior to visiting patient

Inform relative it is fine to visit mother as long as she uses alcohol before entering ward premises

 

Correct answer

There should be 48 hours after active symptoms should disappear prior to visiting patient

 

Leonor, 72 years old patient is being treated with antibiotics for her UTI. After three days of taking them, she developed diarrhoea with blood stains. What is the most possible reason for this?

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Antibiotics causes chronic inflammation of the intestine

An anaphylactic reaction

Antibiotic alters her GI flora which made Clostridium difficile to multiply

 

She is not taking the antibiotics with food

 

Mr Bond’s daughter rang and wanted to visit him. She told you of her diarrhoea and vomiting in the last 24 hours. How will you best respond to her about visiting Mr Bond?

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Allow her to visit and use alcohol gel before contact with him

Visit him when she feels better

Visit him when she is symptom free after 48 hours

Allow her to visit only during visiting times only

 

Correct answer

Visit him when she is symptom free after 48 hours

 

When explaining about travellers’ diarrhoea which of the following is correct?

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Travellers’ diarrhoea is mostly caused by Rotavirus

 

Antimotility drugs like loperamide is ineffective management

Oral rehydration in adults and children is not useful

Adsorbents such as kaolin is ineffective and not advised

 

Correct answer

Adsorbents such as kaolin is ineffective and not advised

 

Causes of diarrhoea in Clostridium difficile:

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Ulcerative colitis

Hashimoto's disease

Crohn's disease

Pseudomembranous colitis

 

 

Effect of toxins released by Clostridium difficile:

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Ulcerative colitis

Crohn’s Disease

 

Hashimotos Diseases

Pseudomembranous Colitis

 

Correct answer

Pseudomembranous Colitis

 

What infection control steps should not be taken in a patient with diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile?

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·       Isolation of the patient

·       All staff must wear aprons and gloves while attending the patient

 

·       All staff will be required to wash their hands before and after contact with the patient, their bed linen and soiled items

·       Oral administration of metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin may be required

·       None of the above

 

Correct answer

None of the above

 

You are caring for a patient in isolation with suspected Clostridium difficile. What are the essential key actions to prevent the spread of infection?

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·       Regular hand hygiene and the promotion of the infection prevention link nurse role

 

·       Encourage the doctors to wear gloves and aprons, to be bare below the elbow and to wash hands with alcohol handrub Ask for cleaning to be increased with soap-based products

·       Ask the infection prevention team to review the patient’s medication chart and provide regular teaching sessions on the ‘5 moments of hand hygiene’ Provide the patient and family with adequate information

·       Review antimicrobials daily, wash hands with soap and water before and after each contact with the patient, ask for enhanced cleaning with chlorine-based products and use gloves and aprons when disposing of body fluids

 

Correct answer

Review antimicrobials daily, wash hands with soap and water before and after each contact with the patient, ask for enhanced cleaning with chlorine-based products and use gloves and aprons when disposing of body fluids

 

 

Barrier Nursing for C diff patient what should you not do?

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Use of hand gel/alcohol rub

Use gloves

Patient has his own set of washers

 

Strict disinfection of pt’s room after isolation

 

Correct answer

Use of hand gel/alcohol rub

 

Clostridium difficile (C diff) infections can be prevented by:

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Using hand gels

 

Washing your hands with soap and water

Using repellent gowns

Limit visiting times

 

Correct answer

Washing your hands with soap and water

 

There has been an outbreak of the Norovirus in your clinical area. Majority of your staff have rang in sick. Which of the following is incorrect?

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Do not allow visitors to come in until after 48h of the last episode

Tally the episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting

Staff who has the virus can only report to work 48h after last episode

 

Ask one of the staff who is off-sick to do an afternoon shift on same day

 

Correct answer

Ask one of the staff who is off-sick to do an afternoon shift on same day

 

When treating patients with Clostridium difficile, how should you clean your hands?

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Use alcohol hand rubs

Use soap and water

Use hand wipes

All of the above

 

Correct answer

Use soap and water

 

Patient with Clostridium difficile has stools with blood and mucus due to which condition?

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Ulcerative colitis

Chrons disease

 Inflammatory bowel disease

 

Correct answer

Ulcerative colitis

 

Jenny, a nursing assistant working with you in an Elderly Care Ward is showing signs of Norovirus infection. Which of the following will you ask her to do next?

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Go home and avoid direct contact with other people and preparing food for others until at least 48 hours after her symptoms have disappeared

 

Disinfect any surfaces or objects that could be contaminated with the virus

Flush away any infected faeces or vomit in the toilet and clean the surrounding toilet area

Avoid eating raw oysters

 

MRSA can cause equally serious infections that treatment may include practicable additional precautions in an acute hospital. All but one is a high-risk assessment for source of isolation to prevent its spread in healthcare:

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Major dispersers, ie dry or flaky skin, expectorating infected sputum

Positive screening swab, but otherwise well

Perioperative, especially orthopaedic patients

 

Multiple devices and interventions, eg ITU patients

 

Correct answer

Positive screening swab, but otherwise well

 

MRSA means

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Methilinase-resistant Streptococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus

 

Methilinase-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 

Correct answer

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 

Documentation confirms that Amy has MRSA. You walked into her bedroom with coffee and biscuits on a tray. Which of the following is incorrect?

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Put the coffee and biscuits on her bedside table and leave the tray on the other table

Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving her room

 

Dispose your gloves and apron before washing your hands

Use the alcohol gel on Amy’s bedside before leaving her room

 

Correct answer

Use the alcohol gel on Amy’s bedside before leaving her room

 

In the event of an inoculation injury occurring, the nurse must promptly take appropriate action to reduce the rusk of subsequent infection. HIV, for example, has how many months of 'window' period?

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3 months

6 months

 

9 months

12 months

 

Correct answer

3 months

 

A young woman has suffered fractured pelvis in an accident, she has been hospitalised for 3 days, when she tells her primary nurse that she has something to tell her but she doesn't want the nurse to tell anyone. She says that she had tried to donate blood and tested positive for HIV. What is the best action of the nurse to take?

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Document this information on the patient's chart

Tell the patient's physician

 

Inform the healthcare team who will come in contact with the patient

Encourage the patient to disclose this information to her physician

 

Correct answer

Encourage the patient to disclose this information to her physician

 

You are preparing a client with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) for discharge to home. Which of the following instructions should the nurse include?

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Avoid sharing things such as razors and toothbrushes

Do not share eating utensils with family members

Limit the time you spend in public places

Avoid eating food from serving dishes shared with others

 

Correct answer

Avoid sharing things such as razors and toothbrushes

 

A young woman who has tested positive for HIV tells her nurse that she has had many sexual partners. She has been on an oral contraceptive and frequently had not requested that her partners use condoms. She denies IV drug use. She tells her nurse that she believes that she will die soon. What would be the best response for the nurse to make?

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"Where there is life there is hope."

"Would you like to talk to the nurse who works with HIV-positive patient’s?"

"You are a long way from dying."

"Not everyone who is HIV positive will develop AIDS and die."

 

Correct answer

"Would you like to talk to the nurse who works with HIV-positive patient’s?"

 

A nurse case manager receives a referral to provide case management services for an adolescent mother who was recently diagnosed with HIV. Which statement indicates that the patient understands her illness?

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·       “I can never have sex again, so I guess I will always be a single parent”

 

·       “I will wear gloves when I’m caring for my baby, because I could infect my baby with AIDS”

·       “My CD4 count is 200 and my T cells are less than 14% I need to stay at these levels by eating and sleeping well and staying healthy”

·       “My CD4 count is 800 and my T cells are greater than 14% I need to stay at these levels by eating and sleeping well and staying healthy”

 

Correct answer

“My CD4 count is 800 and my T cells are greater than 14% I need to stay at these levels by eating and sleeping well and staying healthy”

 

You are preparing to administer a Tuberculin (Mantoux) Skin Test to a client suspected of having tuberculosis (TB). The nurse knows that the test will reveal which of the following?

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How long the client has been infected with TB

Active TB Infection

 

Latent TB Infection

Whether the client has been infected with TB bacteria

 

Correct answer

Latent TB Infection

 

Certain infectious diseases should be notified at international level. Though it is doctor's responsibility, as a registered nurse you should be aware about the diseases that require national notification. Which among the following is notifiable infectious disease at a national level?

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Tuberculosis

 

Influenza

Chicken pox

Swine flu

 

Several clients are admitted to an adult medical unit. The nurse would ensure airborne precautions for a client with which of the following medical conditions?

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A diagnosis of AIDS and cytomegalovirus

A positive PPD with an abnormal chest x-ray

A tentative diagnosis of viral pneumonia

 

Advanced carcinoma of the lung

 

Correct answer

A positive PPD with an abnormal chest x-ray

 

In giving education with a patient diagnosed with hepatitis A, which of the following statements shows the need for further teaching?

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"I should practice good hygiene such as frequent hand washing."

"I should ensure my food is prepared safely."

 

"I can share my towel and flannels with my family."

"I should avoid sexual contact while symptomatic."

 

Correct answer

"I can share my towel and flannels with my family."

 

For which of the following modes of transmission is good hand hygiene a key preventative measure?

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Airborne

Direct contact

Indirect contact

Droplet

 

All of the above

 

Correct answer

All of the above

 

If a patient requires protective isolation, which of the following should you advise them to drink?

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Filtered water only

Fresh fruit juice and filtered water

Bottled water and tap water

 

Tap water only

Long-life fruit juice and filtered water

 

Correct answer

Long-life fruit juice and filtered water

 

You are caring for a patient who was told to be in a “source isolation”. What would you do and why?

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·       Isolating a patient so that they don’t catch any infections

·       Nurse the patient in isolation, ensure that you wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and adhere to strict hand hygiene, for the purpose of preventing the spread of organisms from that patient to others

 

·       Nursing an individual who is regarded as being particularly vulnerable to infection in such a way as to minimize the transmission of potential pathogens to that person

·       Nursing a patient who is carrying an infectious agent that may be a risk to others in such a way as to minimize the risk of the infection spreading elsewhere in their body

 

Mrs X had developed Steven-Johnson syndrome whilst on Carbamazepine. She is now being transferred for the ITU to a bay in the Medical ward. Which patient can Mrs X share a baby with?

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A patient with MRSA

A patient with diarrhoea

A patient with a fever of unknown origin

 

A patient with Stephen-Johnson Syndrome

 

Correct answer

A patient with Stephen-Johnson Syndrome

 

A client is diagnosed with Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. What type of isolation is most appropriate for this client?

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Reverse isolation

Respiratory isolation

 

Standard precautions

Contact isolation

 

Correct answer

Contact isolation

 

One of your patients in bay 1 having episodes of vomiting in the last 2 days now. The Norovirus alert has been enforced. The other patients look concerned that he may spread infection. What is your next action in the situation?

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Seek the infection control nurse’s advice regarding isolation

Give the patient antiemetic to control the vomiting

Offer the patient a lot of drinks to rehydrated

Tell the other patients that vomiting will not cause infection to others

 

Correct answer

Seek the infection control nurse’s advice regarding isolation

 

Infected linen should be separated from soiled linen. What type of bag should be used?

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White linen bag to be washed in high temperature

Red plastic bag to be incinerated

Red linen bag to be washed in high temperature

 

Yellow plastic bag for disposal

 

Where will you put infectious linen?

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Red plastic bag designed to disintegrate when exposed to heat

Red linen bag designed to hold its integrity even when exposed to heat

 

Yellow plastic bag for disposal

 

Correct answer

Red plastic bag designed to disintegrate when exposed to heat

 

Infected linen should be placed in:

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Red plastic bag that disintegrates at high temperature

Red linen bag that can withstand high temperatures

 

White linen bag that can withstand high temperatures

Yellow plastic bag that cannot withstand high temperatures

 

Correct answer

Red plastic bag that disintegrates at high temperature

 

Which bag do you place infected linen?

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Red water-soluble alginate polythene bag before being placed in the appropriate linen bag, no more than ¾ full

 

Orange waste bag, before being placed in the appropriate linen bag, no more than ¾ full

 

White linen bag, after sorting, no more than ¾ full

 

As an infection prevention and control protocol, linens soiled with infectious bodily fluids should be disposed of in what means?

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Placed in yellow plastic bag to be disposed of

Placed in dissoluble red linen bag and washed at high temperature

Placed in yellow linen bag, and washed at high temperature

Placed in red plastic bag to be incinerated at high temperature

 

Correct answer

Placed in dissoluble red linen bag and washed at high temperature

 

How to take an infected sheet for washing according to UK standard

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Take infected linen in yellow bag for disposal

Take in red plastic bag, that disintegrates in high temperature

Use red linen bag that allows washing in high temperature

 

Use a white bag

 

Correct answer

Take in red plastic bag, that disintegrates in high temperature

 

What action would you take if a specimen had a biohazard sticker on it?

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Double bag it, in a self sealing bag, and wear gloves if handling the specimen

Wear gloves if handling the specimen, ring ahead and tell the laboratory the sample is on its way

 

Wear goggles and underfill the sample bottle

Wear appropriate PPE and overfill the bottle

 

Correct answer

Double bag it, in a self sealing bag, and wear gloves if handling the specimen

 

When dealing with a patient who has a biohazard specimen, how will you ensure proper disposal? Select which does not apply:

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The specimen must be labelled with a biohazard

The specimen must be labelled with danger of infection

 

It must be in a double self-sealing bag

It must be transported to the laboratory in a secure box with a fastenable lid

 

How do we handle a specimen container labelled with a yellow hazard sticker?

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Wear gloves and apron, mark it high risk and send the specimen to the laboratory with your other specimens

Wear gloves and apron and inform the laboratory that you are sending the specimen

Wear gloves and apron, inform the infection control team and complete a datix form

Wear gloves and apron, place specimen in a blue bag and complete a datix form

 

Correct answer

Wear gloves and apron and inform the laboratory that you are sending the specimen

 

For which type of waste should orange bags be used?

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Waste that requires disposal by incineration

Offensive/hygiene waste

Waste which may be ‘treated’

 

Offensive waste

 

Examples of offensive/hygiene waste which may be sent for energy recovery at energy from waste facilities can include:

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Stoma or catheter bags

Unused non-cytotoxic/cytostatic medicines in original packaging

Used sharps from treatment using cytotoxic or cytostatic medicines

Empty medicine bottles

 

Correct answer

Stoma or catheter bags

 

When disposing of waste, what colour bag should be used to dispose of offensive/ hygiene waste?

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Orange

Yellow

Yellow and black stripe

 

Black

 

Based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidelines, which of the following is incorrect about sharps container?

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It must be located in a safe position and height to avoid spillage

 

It should be temporarily closed when not in use

It must not be filled above the fill line

It must not be filled below the fill line

 

Correct answer

It must not be filled below the fill line

 

Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of bacteria?

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Cell wall

 

Eukaryocyte

Spherical

Spores

 

Correct answer

Eukaryocyte

 

Which of the following is not a stage in the life cycle of viruses?

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Attachment

Uncoating

Replication

 

Dispersal

 

Correct answer

Dispersal

 

Which of the following is not normally considered to be a high risk fluid?

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Urine

Peritoneal fluid

Semen

 

All of the above

 

Correct answer

Urine

 

Which of the following would indicate an infection?

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Hot, sweaty, a temperature of 365°C, and bradycardic

Temperature of 38.5°C, shivering, tachycardia and hypertensive

 

Raised WBC, elevated blood glucose and temperature of 360°C

Hypotensive, cold and clammy, and bradycardic

 

All but one are the most common types of infection in 2012 as repored by the Health Protection Agency:

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Respiratory tract

Bacteraemia

Urinary tract

Surgical site

 

 

Correct answer

Bacteraemia

 

A client was diagnosed to have infection. What is not a sign or symptom of infection?

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Temperature of more than 38°C

Warm skin

Chills and sweats

 

Aching muscles

 

Correct answer

Aching muscles

 

UK policy for needle prick injury includes all but one:

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Encourage the wound to bleed

Suck the wound

Wash the wound using running water and plenty of soap

Don’t scrub the wound while washing it

 

Correct answer

Suck the wound

 

What would make you suspect that a patient in your care had a urinary tract infection?

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The doctor has requested a midstream urine specimen

The patient has a urinary catheter in situ, and the patient’s wife states that he seems more forgetful than usual

 

The patient has spiked a temperature, has a raised white cell count (WCC), has new onset of confusion and the urine in his catheter bag is cloudy

The patient has complained of frequency of faecal elimination and hasn’t been drinking enough

 

Correct answer

The patient has spiked a temperature, has a raised white cell count (WCC), has new onset of confusion and the urine in his catheter bag is cloudy

 

What steps would you take if you had sustained a needle stick injury?

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·       Ask for advice from the emergency department, report to occupational health and fill in an incident form

 

·       Gently make the wound bleed, place under running water and wash thoroughly with soap and water Complete an incident form and inform your manager Co-operate with any action to test yourself or the patient for infection with a bloodborne virus but do not obtain blood or consent for testing from the patient yourself; this should be done by someone not involved in the incident

 

·       Take blood from patient and self for Hep B screening and take samples and form to Bacteriology Call your union representative for support Make an appointment with your GP for a sickness certificate to take time off until the wound site has healed so you don’t contaminate any other patients

 

·       Wash the wound with soap and water Cover any wound with a waterproof dressing to prevent entry of any other foreign material Wear gloves while working until the wound has healed to prevent contaminating any other patients Take any steps to have the patient or yourself tested for the presence of a bloodborne virus

 

 

Correct answer

Gently make the wound bleed, place under running water and wash thoroughly with soap and water Complete an incident form and inform your manager Co-operate with any action to test yourself or the patient for infection with a bloodborne virus but do not obtain blood or consent for testing from the patient yourself; this should be done by someone not involved in the incident

 

In case of a needle stick injury, what should the nurse do initially:

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Encourage wound to bleed and wash with water

Report to occupational health

Visit Accident and Emergency for treatment

 

Make an incident report

Correct answer

Encourage wound to bleed and wash with water

 

How do you prevent the spread on infection when nursing a patient with long term urinary catheters?

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·       Patients and carers should be educated about and trained in techniques of hand decontamination, insertion of intermittent catheters where applicable, and catheter management before discharge from hospital

 

·       Urinary drainage bags should be positioned below the level of the bladder, and should not be in contact with the floor

 

·       Bladder instillations or washouts must not be used to prevent catheter-associated infections

 

 

·       All of the above

 

Correct answer

All of the above

 

Which client has the highest risk for a bacteraemia?

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Client with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line

Client with a central venous catheter (CVC)

Client with an implanted infusion port

Client with a peripherally inserted intravenous line

 

Correct answer

Client with a central venous catheter (CVC)

 

In infection control, what is a pathogen?

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A micro-organism that is capable of causing infection, especially in vulnerable individuals, but not normally in healthy ones

 

Micro-organisms that are present on or in a person but not causing them any harm

 

Indigenous microbiota regularly found at an anatomical site

 

Antibodies recruited by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses

 

Correct answer

A micro-organism that is capable of causing infection, especially in vulnerable individuals, but not normally in healthy ones 

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